Bethlehem University Library Home Page

 

 

 
  Library Skills Series

How to Prepare a Bibliography
 

 
 

 

 

DEFINITION

A BIBLIOGRAPHY is a list, often with descriptive or critical notes, of writings relating to a particular subject, period or author. It is also a list of the sources used when writing a report or term paper, a book, a periodical article, or a pamphlet.

A BIBLIOGRAPHY includes only those materials that were actually used in the final report.

PURPOSE

The purpose of a Bibliography is to tell the reader where the information was taken from and where the reader can go and look for additional information on the same topic. It enables the reader to quickly identify the sources and locate them at the end of the research paper.

ARRANGEMENT OF ENTRIES:

The BIBLIOGRAPHY entries should provide information about the title, author, publisher, publication date and place.

The entries are listed in alphabetical order according to the author’s last name. If there is more than one author, only the first name is reversed, followed by a comma for the second author’s name (unreversed).

Entries with no author are inserted alphabetically according to the first word of the title (disregarding a, an, the). The title should be complete, including any subtitle.

Bibliographical entries should begin on a new page of the research paper and are not numbered. (Reports and Term Papers. Vol. 5 of Learning Library. Chicago: World Book, Inc., 1986. p. 56.)

There are different style manuals that can be used in arranging a bibliography. The MLA (Modern Language Association of America) Handbook for Writers of Research Papers is one that can be applied.

The MLA Handbook is a guide for writers. It contains information on how to write a term paper, i.e. selecting a topic, using the library, outlining, as well as preparing a bibliography.

STEPS TO BE CONSIDERED IN PREPARING A BIBLIOGRAPHY

        In the bibliography, leave a single space within entries, double space between entries. The first line of each entry starts on the left margin and all subsequent lines, if any, are indented five spaces.

        Dots are used in a bibliographical entry at the end of each main part – author’s name, title, publication facts.

        Underline titles of whole publications, books & periodicals if the report is typed or handwritten.

        Titles of whole publications, books & periodicals should be italicized if the report is produced on a computer.

        Quotation marks must be used around title of articles.

        Bibliography entries are arranged alphabetically by author’s family name. If there is no author, entries are arranged by title.

        Two or more works by the same author are indicated by giving the name of the author for the first entry. For the subsequent entry, type ten hyphens followed by a dot, skip two spaces and give the next title.
The ten hyphens stand for the author’s full name. (Joseph Gilbaldi, Walter S. Achtert. M L A Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 4th ed. New York: Modern Language Association, 1995.)

The following examples of bibliographical citations may be used as guidelines for term papers. They are taken from the MLA Handbook.

 SAMPLE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ENTRIES FOR PUBLISHED BOOKS

a. A BOOK WITH A SINGLE AUTHOR:

 Parker, Greg. Introductory Semiconductor Device Physics. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., 1994.

Russell, Willy. Educating Rita. London: Longman Group Ltd., 1991.

Schoffman, Nachum. There is No truer Truth: The Musical Aspect of Browning’s Poetry. New York: Greenwood press, 1991.

 b. A BOOK WITH TWO OR MORE AUTHORS:

Rogers, Glyn, Linda Badham. Evaluation in Schools: getting started on training and implementation. London: Routledge, 1982.

Zis, George et al. International Economics. London: Longman Group Ltd., 1988.

c.  TWO OR MORE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR:

Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1973.

----------. The Critical Path: Essay on the Social Context of Literary Criticism. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press 1971.

----------, et al.  Morality of Scholarship. Ed. Max Black. Studies in Humanities. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Univ. Press, 1967.

d.  A BOOK IN SEVERAL VOLUMES OR PARTS:

Churchill, Winston S. The Age of Revolution. Vol. III of A History of the English Speaking Peoples. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1957.

Daiches, David. A Critical History of English Literature. 2 nd ed. New York: Ronald, 1970. Vol. II.

Parker, William R. Milton: A Biography. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1968.

e.  ARTICLES IN REFERENCE WORKS:

 Chiappini, Luciano. “Este, House of”. Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropaedia. 1985 ed.

Mead, Margaret. “Who’s who of American Women”. 8th ed. (1974 – 75).

f.   THE PUBLISHED PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE:

 Leukocytes and Host Defense. Proc. of a conference on the International Leukocyte Cultural. 3 – 8 Aug. 1985. New York: Alan R.Liss Inc., 1986.

g.  A BOOK WITHOUT PLACE OF PUBLICATION, PUBLISHER OR DATE:

Photographic View Album of Cambridge. [England]: n.p., n.d.

 SAMPLE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ENTRIES FOR ARTICLES IN PERIODICALS.

a.      AN ARTICLE FROM A PERIODICAL WITH CONTINUOUS PAGINATION THROUGHOUT THE ANNUAL VOLUME:

 Shomer, Enid. “Reading a Violet Love Poem to the Deaf”. Poetry 157 (1991): 214 – 215.

b.      AN ARTICLE FROM A PERIODICAL THAT PAGES EACH ISSUE SEPARATELY OR THAT NUMBERS ONLY ISSUES:

Muller – Christiansen, Konrad. “Stymied in the Aids Struggle”. World Press Review 40, No.2 (1993): 24 – 25.

Ritvo, Harriet. “Race, Bread, and Myths of Cerigin: Chillingham Cattle as Ancient Britons”. Representations No. 39 (1992): 1 –22.

c.       AN ARTICLE FROM A WEEKLY PERIODICAL OR WEEKLY NEWSPAPER:

Gorman, Christine. “Are Gay Men Born That Way?” Time 9 Sept. 1991: 54 – 55.

Lederman, Douglas. “Athletic Merit vs. Academic Merit”. Chronicle of Higher Education 30 Mar. 1994: A 37 –38.

d.      AN ARTICLE FROM A MONTHLY PERIODICAL:

Graham, Mary. “The quiet Drug Revolution”. Atlantic January 1991: 34-40.

 e.      AN ARTICLE FROM A DAILY NEWSPAPER:

 Feder, Barnaby J. “For Job Seekers, A Toll – Free Gift of Expert Advice”. New York Times 30 Dec. 1993, natl. ed.: C1+

 

Note: Every newspaper is normally divided into sections labeled A, B, C etc. and paginated. A section letter is part of each page number e.g. A1, C5.

Newspaper articles are often not printed on consecutive pages. An article might begin on page 1 and continue on page 10. For such articles write the page number and a plus sign C5+.

SAMPLE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ENTRIES FOR NON PRINT MEDIA

a.      FILMS:

It’s a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. PKO, 1946.

A film entry usually begins with a title underlined and includes the director, distributor and the year.

b.      CD – ROM:

The oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. CD –ROM. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

If you are citing a part of the work, such as an article, an essay, a poem or a short story, enclose the title in quotation marks.

“Albatross”. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd rd. CD – ROM. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 19992.

c.       RECORDINGS

Frost, Robert. Robert Frost Reads His Poetry. Caedmon, XC 783, 1952.

Holiday, Billie. Essential Billie Holiday. Verve, 68410, 1961.

d.      VIDEOCASSETTES:

It’s a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. PKO, 1946.Videocassette. Republic, 1988.

Cite a videocassette like a film but include the original release date and the republication date.

e.       ELECTRONIC JOURNALS:

Lindsay, Robert K. “Electronic Journals of Proposed Research” E Journal 1.1 (1991): n. pag. Online. Internet. 10 Apr. 1991.

f.        AN ELECTRONIC TEXT:

Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. The Works of William Shakespeare. Ed. Arthur H. Bullen. Stratford Town Ed.Statford – on –Avon: Shakespeare Head, 1911. Online. Dartmouth Coll. Lib. Internet. 26 Dec. 1992.

GLOSSARY

Article

مقالة

Bibliography

البيبلوغرافيا

Citation

ذكر لمرجع

Conference

مؤتمر

Entries

مداخل،مادة مدرجة

Guidelines

توجهات

Hyphen

شرطة بين جزئي الكلمة

Indented

ترك فراغ في بداية السطر

Inserted

مدرج

Proceedings

أوراق مؤتمر

Reversed

ترتيب معكوس

Subsequent

التالي

Systematic

منهاجي

 

Attention

Entries in a bibliography are divided into sections: books, periodical articles, and non-print media. The entries in each section are arranged in one list in alphabetical order according to author or title.

 

This Series is Dedicated To: 

Br. Anton de Roeper, FSC
Vice Chancellor (1987-1993)

For his strong support to the Library as reflected in his statement: "I remain convinced that the frequency of student access to the library facilities is a very good indicator of the quality of intellectual work undertaken  in  the  University. In  the   academic sphere this is my chief preoccupation".
 

Bethlehem University Library,
1996 All rights reserved
 

 


Copyright 2009
Designed by
Bethlehem University Library